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Start with a rectangular array of data bits, add parity checks for each row and column. Single-bit errors in data will show up as parity errors in a particular row and column, pinpointing the bit that has the error.
Parity for each row and column is correct no errors
Parity check fails for row #2 and column #2 bit B 3 is incorrect
Parity check only fails for row #2 bit P 1 is incorrect