**if R={(1,2),(2,1),(3,1),(2,3)} be a relation defined on A={1,2,3)then transitive closure of R is**

The **Answer to the Question**

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**Here's the Solution to this Question**

The transitive closure is the relation that shows which nodes are reachable from a given node. Since the path 1→2→3→1

1→2→3→1 exists it follows that any node can reach any other node and so $R=A^2$