Topic: Data Science.
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Objective: There are 2 jars with 50 red marbles and 50 blue marbles. You need to place all the marbles into the jars in such a way that if you blindly pick one marble out of the jar, there are maximum chances of it being red. While picking, you will first randomly pick a jar and then randomly pick a marble out of that jar. You can arrange the marbles however you like, but each marble must be in a jar.
Short Answer: practical answer.
If we put a single red marble in one jar and the rest of the marbles in the other jar, there is at least a 50% chance of getting a red marble, since one randomly picked marble, doesn’t leave much room for choice.
Now, there are 49 red marbles left in the other jar, and there is nearly even chance of picking a red marble (49 out of 99).
Calculating the total probability will give us:
P(red marble ) = P(Jar 1) * P (red marble in Jar 1) + P (Jar 2) * P (red marble in Jar 2)
P(red marble) = 0.5 * 1 + 0.5 * 49/99
P(red marble ) = 0.7474
Thus, we end up with ~75% chance of picking a red marble.